# Python libraries for Machine Learning

Researchers used to execute machine learning activities by physically coding all of the methods, arithmetical and analytical formulae back in the day.

It rendered the system inefficient, time-consuming and tiresome.

However, with different python libraries, tools and scripts, it has gotten a lot easier and efficient in recent years in contrast with years ago.

Since then, for a long period of time, Python has been the preferred coding language for programmers who mainly deal with machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Python helps programmers with some of the most flexible & feature rich tools that improve not just its performance but also the reliability of their software.

It’s also beneficial for enormous libraries that aid with the numerous tasks.

The following are some of the characteristics that make Python one of the best programming languages for machine learning :

- Its efficient crowd friendly design and open-source nature ensures long term advancements.
- Extensive libraries ensure that every problem or glitch can be solved.
- Its easy installation and integration make it adaptable for individuals of various skill sets.
- Improved productivity by lowering the time it takes to code and troubleshoot
- Functions really well with C and C++ coding languages
- Python can be used as for soft computing and NLP

**Top python libraries for Machine Learning:**

- NumPy
- SciPy
- Scikit-Learn
- Theano
- TensorFlow
- Keras
- PyTorch
- Pandas
- Matplotlib

**NumPy:**

There are several collections in Python that act like arrays, however, they are difficult to execute.

NumPy is a python module that allows users to interact with arrays. Numerical Python is referred to as NumPy.

Anyone can use it for free as it is an open-source tool.

This also provides functions for working with matrices, Fourier transforms, and the realm of linear algebra.

NumPy intends to deliver a super-fast array structure than ordinary Python lists.

NumPy’s array object is named “ndarray”, and it comes with a slew of auxiliary functions to make interacting with it a simple manner.

In data analysis, as efficiency and resources are essential, arrays are widely applied.

NumPy arrays, unlike lists, are housed in a single continuous location in memory, allowing programmes to retrieve and alter them quickly.

In the field of computer science, this is known as locality of reference.

NumPy is quicker than lists because of this. It’s also been formulated to function with the most advanced CPU designs.

NumPy is a Python library which is developed in C or C++ for the most part.

Reading an array is much like indexing it.

By pointing to the index number of an array element, users can access it.

NumPy arrays have indexes that begin with 0, so the first component has index 0, the second has index 1, and so forth.

When it comes to looping, Python is slower than FORTRAN and other programming languages.

NumPy, which turns repetitive code into compiled form, is used to solve this problem.

**Features:**

- N-dimensional array object with superior performance

The NumPy library’s main aspect is this. It’s the object with equivalent arrays.

The array elements are subjected to all functions.

The array elements are subjected to all functions. In NumPy, arrays can be one or multi-faceted.

- Array with unidirectional dimension

A single array is made up of only one row or column of data. The array’s items are all of the same type.

- Array with several dimensions

There are different rows and columns in this scenario. Each column is a dimension in our calculations.

The layout is similar to that of an excel spreadsheet. The constituents are all of the same type.

- It involves techniques for merging C, C++ and FORTRAN code.

NumPy’s functions can be used to interact with code written in other languages.

As a result, we can combine the numerous different languages’ characteristics.

This aids in the implementation of cross platform routines.

- It includes a multidimensional data unit for basic information

The specified data type of arrays is referred to as “generic data”.

It can work with generic types of data and run operations on them.

NumPy’s arrays are all the same size. Parameters are assigned to these array entries.

The parameters aid in increasing the arrays’ diversity.

- Enhanced ability in linear algebra, Fourier transform, and random numbers

It can execute sophisticated elemental functions such as linear algebra, Fourier transform, and so forth.

Each of the complicated functions is divided into its own module.

For linear algebra operations, there’s the linalg module.

In NumPy, the Fourier transform is represented by fft functions.

For implementing algorithms to matrices, we have a matrix module.

In the matplotlib module of NumPy, there are additional unique methods for plotting graphs.

As a result, it becomes an extremely flexible array library.

- It has broadcasting capabilities

When working with arrays of irregular forms, the notion of broadcasting is extremely beneficial.

It transmits the form of smaller arrays based on the bigger arrays structure.

The execution of array broadcasting has a few restrictions and limits.

One of the arrays must be uni-dimensional, or both arrays must have the exact structure, in order to broadcast.

The form of the arrays is also constrained by a few other factors.

**Merits:**

- NumPy’s arrays are its foundation.

When compared to equivalent data types in Python, one of the key benefits of having NumPy arrays is that they take less storage and perform better.

- Particular scientific operations, like linear algebra, are NumPy.

Users can use them to solve linear equations.

- NumPy allows users to do vectorised tasks such as element wise addition and multiplication, calculating the Kronecker product, and so forth.

These functionalities are not supported by Python lists.

- It is a great alternative to MATLAB, OCTAVE and other programming languages because it offers identical features and benefits.

- It doesn’t require much effort as writing Python is reliable and comprehensive.

- For data analysis, NumPy is a dynamic choice for many programmers.

**Demerits:**

- Applying the keyword “nan” in NumPy

“Nan” means “not a number”. It was created to deal with the issue of incomplete information.

- Although NumPy enables “nan”, the absence of cross-platform comparability in Python tends to make it challenging for users.

- Because of the mentioned reason above, when evaluating variables in the Python interpreter, users can run into issues.

- NumPy prefers a contiguous storage space

When information is stored in contiguous memory regions, insertion and deletion operations get expensive because they necessitate relocating.

**SciPy:**

SciPy stands for Scientific Python.

SciPy is a Python library for scientific and technological computing that is free and open source.

It is a set of mathematical computations and utility functions based on the Python NumPy extension.

It provides the coders with a high level of instructions and methods for manipulating and displaying data, which gives the interactive Python session a lot more control.

As previously stated, SciPy is based on NumPy, users will not have to acquire NumPy while using SciPy.

SciPy installation

SciPy must be installed in the system prior to actually learning enough about its fundamental features.

Installation of SciPy can be done on Windows or Linux systems using the following techniques :

- Using pip to install SciPy

Pip translates to “Pip Install Packages”, and it is a recursive abbreviation.

By using the pip command, users can get the SciPy library installed.

It is a common package manager that is available for major operating platforms.

- Use Anaconda to install SciPy

Alternatively, Anaconda can be used to install SciPy packages.

Users must first install the Anaconda explorer, and then enter the following command into the Anaconda prompt :

conda install – c anaconda

- Installation on Mac

Although the Mac doesn’t come with a built-in package management, users can download and install a variety of prominent package managers.

There are some instructions that will install SciPy, as well as matplotlib, pandas and NumPy, from the terminal.

In SciPy, there are sub-packages

For Python scientific processing, several specific software tools are required, and SciPy is one major tool or library that provides a large number of Python modules with which users may conduct sophisticated calculations.

**Features:**

- Scipy is divided into sub-packages that handle various aspects of analytical computing.

- A multidimensional array given by the NumPy module is the common data format utilised by SciPy.

NumPy has certain methods for linear algebra, Fourier transform and random number generation, although they don’t have the same openness as SciPy’s equivalent.

- All NumPy operations are accessible through the SciPy namespace.

- When SciPy is installed, there’s no necessity to specifically incorporate the NumPy routines.

- The uniform multidimensional array is the primary NumPy object.

It is a list of numbers of entries of the same kind, all of which are indexed by a sequence of positive integers.

- Axes of NumPy are known as dimensions, while the rank refers to the number of axes.

Understanding NumPy basics is required because SciPy is added on top of NumPy arrays.

- Matrix

A matrix is a particular two-dimensional array that maintains its two-dimensional character throughout the operations.

There are some certain unique functions in it, such as matrix multiplication, matrix subtraction and matrix power.

- Matrix Transposition

When users transpose a matrix, they build a different matrix whose rows correspond to the original’s columns.

The row and column indexes for each matrix component are swapped in a conjugate transposition. A matrix’s inverse is a matrix that produces an identical matrix when combined with the initial matrix.

- Clustering

Clustering in SciPy is the work of separating a collection or set of data bits into a variety of groups.

The data values in the same group are more comparable to other data values in the same group and data points in other groups being distinct.

A cluster is a logically constructed group.

Cluster can be divided into two categories :

i ) Central

ii ) Hierarchy

In a set of unstructured data, K-means clustering is a process for locating clusters and cluster centres.

Instinctively, users may conceive a cluster as a collection of data values with minimal inter-point intervals as compared to distances between points outside the cluster.

The K-means method evaluates the following two phases based on the original set of K centres :

- Every centre is assigned to the subset of its cluster that is closest to it.
- Every cluster’s mean for each characteristic is determined. Hence, the mean vector becomes the cluster’s fresh centre.

Users need to collate these stages until the centres don’t shift or the assignments don’t alter.

Then, for the cluster of the nearest prototype, a fresh point x can be allocated.

Through the cluster package in the SciPy library, the K-means algorithm is well implemented.

Merits:

Demerits:

**Scikit-Learn:**

Scikit-learn is a Python library that offers a uniform interface to a variety of supervised and unsupervised learning methods.

It is offered under several Linux distributions and is licensed underneath a permissive modified BSD license, making it suitable for research and business use.

SciPy, which must be installed before using scikit-learn, is the foundation of the library. This stack contains the following items :

- NumPy is a python package for creating n-dimensional arrays.
- SciPy is a Python-based scientific computing package.
- Matplotlib is a two dimensional or three-dimensional plotting library.
- IPython: A more interactive Python environment
- Sympy
- Data structures and analysis with Pandas

Extensions or modules for SciPy maintenance are commonly referred to as SciKits.

As a result, scikit-learn is the title of the module which contains learning techniques.

The library’s goal is to achieve the degree of reliability and resources needed for utilization in production systems.

It necessitates a concentrated effort on issues like usability, code quality, cooperation, documentation and efficiency.

Despite the Python interfaces, c-libraries such as NumPy for arrays and matrix computations, LAPACK, LibSVM, and judicious use of Cython are used to improve speed.

**Features:**

Instead of importing, editing and analysing dataz the Scikit-learn toolkit concentrates on data modelling.

The following are a few of Skleam’s top prominent model groups :

- Supervised learning :

Vast majority of supervised learning techniques such as linear regression, support vector machine, decision tree and others, are included in scikit-learn.

- Unsupervised learning :

The algorithms for unsupervised learning include clustering, factor analysis, principal component analysis, and unsupervised neural networks.

- Clustering :

Clustering is a model for grouping data that has not been tagged.

- Cross Validation :

It is a technique for testing the accuracy of supervised models with previously unknown data.

- Dimensionality reduction :

It is a technique for lowering the amount of qualities in data so that it may be summarised, visualised and feature-selected more easily.

- Ensemble approaches :

Ensemble approaches combine the forecasts of several supervised algorithms.

- Feature extraction :

Feature extraction is a technique for extracting data features and defining properties in picture and text data.

- Feature selection :

Feature selection is a technique for identifying interesting qualities that can be used to build supervised models.

- Open source :

It is an open source library that can also be used commercially for profits under the BSD license.

Loading of Datasets

A dataset is a collection of data. It consists of the following elements :

- Features

The features of data are the factors that make it up.

Predictors, inputs and characteristics are all terms used to describe them.

- Feature matrix

If there are multiple features, then the feature matrix is the compilation of all of them.

- Feature names

The collection of all the features’ names is called feature names.

- Response

The output variable or response is largely determined by the feature variables.

They are also referred to as the target, label or output.

- Response vector

The vector of response is a symbol for a response column.

In most cases, users only have a single column for responses.

- Target names

A response vector’s potential values are represented by the target names.

For classification, scikit-learn has iris and digits.

For regression, scikit-learn has Boston house prices.

Merits:

- The library is released under the BSD license, which makes it publicly available with only the most basic legal and licencing constraints.

- It is simple to use.

- The Scikit-learn package is extremely flexible and useful.

It can be used for a variety of real world tasks such as consumer preferences prediction, neuroimage development and so forth.

- Various scholars, contributors and a significant multinational online community contribute to scikit-learn, which is regularly evolving.

- For users that want to connect the algorithms with their own platforms, the scikit-learn website offers detailed API documentation.

Demerits:

- For deep learning, scikit-learn is not the ideal option.

- Scikit-learn may put boundaries to the knowledge of a coder as any coder who has basic knowledge about programming would easily configure it.

- Lack of GPU computing.

**Theano**

Theano is a Python library that enables users to quickly assess arithmetic computations such as multidimensional arrays.

It is primarily used in the development of deep learning applications.

It is considerably quicker on the GPU than on the CPU.

For matters surrounding the vast quantities of information, theano achieves great speed, making it a difficult competitor for C implementations.

It can reap the benefits of GPUs, allowing it to outperform C on a CPU in some situations by order of magnitude.

It understands how to handle complex systems and turn them into highly fast code using NumPy and certain local libraries.

It is primarily intended for the levels of computing demanded by big neural network methods involved in deep learning.

As a result, in the subject of deep learning, it is a very prominent library.

**Features:**

Theano is a cross between NumPy and sympy, with the goal of combining both of them into a single strong library.

The following are some of the features of theano library :

- Optimization of stability

Theano can identify some precarious manifestations and assess them with more reliable methods.

- Execution Speed Optimization

As previously stated, theano can take advantage of modern GPUs and run sections of phrased in both CPU and GPU, making it significantly smoother than Python.

- Differentiation using symbolic interpretation

Theano is sophisticated enough to generate symbolic graphs by itself when computing variations.

Merits:

- Theano supports NumPy which adds as a bonus to many programmers.

- Additionally, theano supports operations of algebra. It also supports tensors.

- It has GPU and CPU

- RNN and CNN is supported by theano

- Theano can be utilised for deep learning and beyond.

- It supports parallel execution.

- Nice abstract computation graph.

Demerits:

- Theano utilizes only a single GPU which makes it a little difficult for programmers at times.

- Theano provides a low-level interface.

- Theano often displays error messages which are unclear in nature.

- The large models of theano take a huge amount of time to assemble and compile.

**TensorFlow**

Tensorflow is an open-source machine learning platform.

It features a large, versatile, wide range of tools, libraries and user resources that allow scientists to test the limits of machine learning.

Programmers use tensorflow to quickly construct and launch machine learning-powered applications.

Tensorflow was created to undertake machine learning and deep neural network research by scientists and programmers on the Google Brain team within Google’s machine learning intelligence research organisation.

The method is highly versatile to be used iCn a range of various fields.

Tensorflow has robust Python and C++ APIs, as well reverse compatibility with alternative languages that are non-guaranteed in nature.

**Features:**

- Tensorflow is a open-source library

Tensorflow is an open source library for machine learning computations that enables faster and simpler equations.

It makes swapping algorithms between tensorflow tools much easier.

- Tensorflow is simple to use

Tensorflow programs can be run on a variety of platforms including Android, IOS, Cloud, CPU, GPU, etc.

Tensorflow’s neural models are trained using Cloud TPUs which are custom-designed, referred to as tensorflow processing unit.

- Quick debugging

It enables users to evaluate each node or operation, separately.

Tensor board uses the graph on its interface to visualise how it operates.

It offers easy-to-use computational graphing approaches.

- It is highly effective

It uses a data format called tensor to cope with multidimensional arrays and express the edges in the flow graph.

Tensor determines the rank, kind and geometry of every structure.

- It is scalable

With the assistance of learning while utilising comparable models and various data sets, it allows for the forecast of stocks,

items and more.

It additionally supports synchronous and asynchronous learning methods, as well as data collection.

Merits:

- Tensorflow is an open source library which is accessible to everyone. Programmers can develop various systems using tensorflow.

- Tensorflow gives access to a high quality visualization of data through its graphical representation.

The neural network is efficiently sorted through this process.

- Programmers can compute complex coding through tensorflow as it is highly compatible with Keras.

- Tensorflow is highly scalable in nature as it allows programmers to create various operations and systems using it.

- Tensorflow works seamlessly with programming languages such as Java, Python, Swift, C# and so forth.

Demerits:

- It regularly updates its system which can become exhausting for some programmers who become comfortable with the ongoing version.

- There’s architectural constraints on tensorflow as the TPU simply gives access to execute the model rather than training it.

- Tensorflow is dependent on other platforms to execute any sort of code which makes it difficult for some programmers.

- It doesn’t provide as many features for Windows as compared to Linux.

- It doesn’t have any other support system other than Python for computation of GPU and NVIDIA for GPU support.

- If we compare tensorflow with its rivals then it’s relatively slow and doesn’t have much usability.

**Keras**

Keras is a Python based open source neural network system that operates on theano and tensorflow.

Keras is unable to do low-level calculations. However, it runs the ‘backend’ library to do the same.

Keras is a high level API layer for a low level API that may be used with tensorflow, CNTK or theano.

The high level API is responsible for creating systems, establishing layers, and configuring various input and output designs.

Keras combines the models with loss and optimizer algorithms as well as the training process with the fit function.

Keras in Python doesn’t support low-level APIs like creating a computation graph, tensors and other parameters as it has been designed for Backend to manage.

**Features:**

- A model can be viewed as a consistent framework or graph.

A deep learning model’s assumptions are all separate units that can be mixed and matched in any order.

- The library only contains what is needed to accomplish a goal with no extraneous information and a focus on comprehension.

- Within the platform, additional features are designed to be simple to install and operate, allowing developers to test and think creatively.

- There are no distinct model documents with special file formats in Python.

Everything is written exclusively in Python.

Merits:

- Keras is relatively easier to learn and is quick to operate. It has a user-friendly API and has no different kinds of parameters.

- There are several users of Keras which contribute to it generally. Many programmers, scientists, researchers and so forth use Keras to develop their system and codes.

- Programmers can choose a wide range of Backends such as tensorflow, CNTK, etc based on the requirements of their project.

- Keras works on various modes of OS such as IOS, Android, Cloud, etc.

- Programmers can use more than one GPU to train Keras. Because of the availability of multiple GPUs, the process becomes reliable and fast.

Demerits:

- Keras cannot work on low-level APIs so programmers who want to create abstract layers on their own, would not find it suitable to use.

- Unlike scikit-learn, the data processing system is not reliable in Keras. Additionally, it is not satisfying to develop algorithms like clustering and principal component analysis.

- At times, it tends to get slower so programmers need to cope up with it while computation.

**PyTorch**

PyTorch is a machine learning package for tensor calculations, automated grading and GPU speed.

PyTorch, which competes with Keras and TensorFlow for the title of “commonly utilised” deep learning package, is among the most prominent deep learning libraries for these factors.

PyTorch is centered on Torch, a scientific computation system for Lua, and is famous within the research field because of its Pythonic structure and simplicity of creating custom layer types, network architectures and so on.

Deep learning packages like Caffe and Torch were the most prevalent prior to PyTorch, Keras and TensorFlow.

PyTorch resolves most of the problems that Keras and TensorFlow had. Y establishing an API that was simultaneously Pythonic and easy to configure, enabling for the implementation of new component types.

Research groups migrated from TensorFlow to PyTorch.

**Features:**

- The API of PyTorch is very efficient to use.
- The features of Python integrations makes PyTorch very useful for data science.
- PyTorch helps to create computational and statistical graphs in a simpler manner.
- Using PyTorch, programmers can alter the graphs they plot in it, anytime.
- It’s identical to Python computation.
- PyTorch has dispersed training.
- Multiple cloud partners.

Merits:

- PyTorch provides outstanding computational graphs which are highly efficient and are easy to alter.
- PyTorch can be beneficial for a programmer who wants to create a neural network model.
- PyTorch provides a smooth cross front-end platform which helps in C++ computation.
- PyTorch has a dynamic environment for libraries and tools.
- The authoritative programming assists in debugging and logic of the program in a fast manner.

Demerits:

- PyTorch is not recommended for product deployment.
- It doesn’t have its own official version like other Python libraries.
- PyTorch doesn’t have adequate visualisation.
- PyTorch needs to convert python code into a different model to develop programming systems as it doesn’t have a final learning development object.

**Pandas**

Pandas is a popular open source Python library for data science, statistical analysis and machine learning activities.

It is based on NumPy, a library that supports multidimensional arrays.

Pandas is among the most widely used data handling programmes in the Python community and it is normally featured in each Python release.

Those that come with the operating platf to corporate vendor editions such as ActiveState’s ActivePython.

**Features:**

- Using standard and customisable indexing, the DataFrame object is quick and accurate.
- Data loading utilities for multiple files into in-memory data structures.
- Inadequate data is handled in a coordinated manner.
- Data sets are reshaped and pivoted.
- Slice, index and subset big data sets based on labels.
- Users can alter or add columns to a data structure.
- For aggregation and modifications, create groups based on the data.
- Integrating and combining data at a high speed.
- Time series is a useful feature.

Merits:

- Pandas gives an amazing interpretation of graphs and data analysis
- Programmers don’t need to code a lot compared to other libraries as panda provides the ability to do coding with less code and hassles.
- It manages and maintains a variety of databases in a proper manner.
- The features and commands of panda are enormous for programmers which results in ease in coding for programmers.
- Panda provides customisation and flexibility of data in a simpler manner.

Demerits:

- The syntax of panda is complex in nature which makes it difficult for some programmers to switch between general Python coding and panda.
- It may get tough to get familiar with its library functions because of its learning curve.
- For a new programmer, the documentation can be complex and confusing.

**Matplotlib**

Matplotlib is a great Python visualisation package for 2D arrays charts.

Matplotlib is a multi-platform data visualisation package based on NumPy arrays and intended for use with the SciPy framework.

One of the most important advantages of visualisation is that it gives users graphical exposure to large volumes of data in simple images.

Line, bar, scatter, histogram and more graphs are available in matplotlib.

Matplotlib has a large number of plots. Plots assist in the comprehension of trends, structures and relationships.

They are often used to make decisions based on numerical data.

**Features:**

- It uses natgrid library interface for uneven gridding of dispersed data.
- It uses Mplot3d which is a three dimensional plotting programme.
- It includes applications for transferring data between matplotlib and excel.
- Cartopy is a mapping library with a configurable point, line, polygon and picture conversion features, as well as object-oriented map projection specifications.
- It has basemap which is a map-plotting toolbox that includes a variety of map interpretations, beaches and country borders.

Merits:

- Matplotlib can operate across a variety of platforms such as Windows, Mac OS X, etc.
- The LaTeX implementation makes matplotlib a top choice for scientific research.
- It is highly extensible, exclusive in nature and can be customised easily.
- It’s a free open source library.
- Unlike others, matplotlib is a real programming language.

Demerits:

- It requires ample time for coders to understand matplotlib in order to develop graphs.
- It is not suitable for time series data.
- Matplotlib is not exclusively created for data analysis and visualisation.
- Matplotlib is a low-level library. Hence, it consumes a lot of time to write code in order to get the required visualisation.

**Conclusion:**

A module is a document which stores Python code while a package is a folder that contains sub-packages

There’s a thin line between a package and a Python library that differentiates both of them.

A Python library is a customisable snippet of code that programmers can apply in their own programmes and applications.

In contrast to C or C++, Python libraries are not tied to any particular domain.

Rubygems and npm can be used to download libraries.

There are around 137,000 Python libraries out of which we have discussed a few Best Python Libraries for Machine Learning in this article. Some of them are NumPy, Scikit-learn, Panda, Matplotlib, etc.

Python libraries are a collection of helpful activities that allow users to write code without having to start from scratch.

Python libraries are critical for creating solutions in machine learning, data analytics, data visualization, graphic and data processing, and much more.