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R Programming Language

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The R programming language has a wide range of statistical and graphical studies. 

Numerous industries such as government sectors, financial institutions like banks, medical services, IT sectors, along with others use the R programming language for their statistical and data analysis.

Additionally, R is broadly utilized among data analysts and other researchers for creating measurable programming and information statistics. 

Along with Python, Java and other programming languages, R is a preferred language as well. 

R Programming Language

What is R Programming Language ?

R language was created in 1993 by Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka.

R is a programming language for factual or statistical examination, graphical illustration and its portrayal. 

R gives a wide assortment of graphical procedures and statistics. 

Some of the statistical measures include:

  • straight and nonlinear equations
  • traditional measurable tests
  • examination of time series
  • clustering

R permits incorporation with the strategies written in .Net, Python, C, FORTRAN or C ++ for proficiency. 

The GNU General Public Licence, which additionally accommodates different working frameworks like Windows, Mac, etc also runs R which is unreservedly accessible under it. 

Perhaps, one of R’s strengths seems to be the ease through which both scheduled group value graphs, comprising mathematical graphics and equations when needed, can be given.

Even presets regarding basic activities pertaining to representations are based on detailed thoughts, however, the customer maintains absolute control.

R also permits to have brand new functions by defining the functionality of the new one, similar to the programming language S.

Some of the studies include surveys, insights on data mining, and so forth.  Based on the reviews of coders, it can be analysed that the programming language R is exceptionally extensible. 

Compared to the alternative languages, R has more grounded object-oriented programming settings. 

Is R Programming easy to learn?

R is known for being difficult to learn. 

Considering R is so different from many other programming languages, it was to be expected. 

Unlike the programming language Python, R is relatively complex as its syntax is very hard.

Furthermore, fundamental tasks like choosing, naming and renaming factors in R are more confounding if compared to other programming languages.

If someone studies R daily for one hour or so then it would take around one month to get familiar with the syntax of R.

Assuming you need to utilize R and become an expert in it, you can hope to go through no less than half a year fostering the information you need. 

Like any programming language, it’s difficult to appraise how it will be required for you to learn it. 

As mentioned earlier, because of the complexity of R, even novice ideas will be new to a ton of software engineers despite learning from various courses. 

In case you are now acquainted with fundamental data science standards, you will presumably have a little smoother experience as you begin learning R. 

After some time, you will become more acquainted with the guidelines of the language. This is the situation for all programming abilities.

The following is the list of some of the difficulties beginners, as well as coders, face while studying R :

  • There are too many GUIs

R’s full capabilities, like that of most other packages, can only be accessed through programming. 

However, unlike many others, it doesn’t include a standard graphical user interface (GUI) to assist non-programmers in conducting studies. 

Furthermore, the existence of various GUIs implies that volunteer labour is dispersed across multiple versions rather than just one. 

  • Not great at assistance

Another perplexing characteristic of R’s help files is R’s ability to add new functionalities to existing functions as add-on packages are loaded. 

This means that you can’t just read a help file, understand it, and be done with learning that function.

It does, however, mean that you will have fewer commands to memorise. 

Once you predict, that function may get new skills to deal with model objects computed precisely within the new package when you load a new package.

As a result, a newbie learning R will need to understand considerably more than a SAS or SPSS beginning before finding the assistance files useful.

  • The syntax that isn’t consistent

Because anyone can add new features to R, the resulting code for many R packages is frequently a jumble. 

For example, two blocks of code may nearly do the same thing but with drastically different syntaxes. 

This kind of inconsistency is ubiquitous in R, and there is no way to avoid it because anyone can add to it.

  • Difficulties in analysing variables

Unfortunately, R functions are inconsistent in terms of what kind of objects they accept and how many they accept. 

R’s max function can accept any number of variables separated by commas. 

  • R doesn’t accept all variables

A variable in R can be a vector, a factor, a member of a data frame, or even a component of a list, which is a complicated structure in R.

You must discover what it will accept for processing for each function.

Most basic statistical functions, such as mean, median, and so on, will accept variables stored as vectors.

R’s rich set of data structures, which includes vectors, factors, matrices, data frames, arrays, and lists, is responsible for this complexity.

Applications of R Programming:

R is an open-source programming language and software package administered by the R team of developers. 

Furthermore, the R programming language is a command-line driven software that is utilized for statistical tasks. 

When comparing R, SAS, and SPSS, R is now the most widely used analytics programme on the planet. 

Furthermore, it is predicted that between 250000 & 2 million people use it.

Data Science:

R for data science emphasizes mostly on means of statistical capabilities of the language. 

You’ll learn how to use R to perform statistical studies and create data visualizations when you learn R for data science. 

R’s statistical utilities make data cleaning, import, and analysis.

The language was created with statistical analysis and data mining in mind. 

R analytics isn’t just for analysing data; it’s also for developing software and apps that can do the statistical analysis correctly. 

R has a graphical interface in addition to the traditional statistical capabilities. 

As a result, it can be employed in a variety of critical modelling applications, such as traditional statistical analysis, linear/non-linear modelling, data clustering, time-series analysis, and so on.

Creating custom data collecting, grouping, and analytical models is a typical use of R in data science.

Statistical Computing:

Linear and nonlinear programming, conventional statistical measures, geometric and time-series analysis, categorisation, clustering, and some other graphical and statistical techniques. 

These all are implemented in R as well as its libraries.

The R technology supports an advanced and effective software package for creating a variety of tools and programs.

Nonetheless, the underlying statistical structure and tools that make the language’s foundation are its most important features. 

For producing statistical applications and data analysis, analysts and data miners utilize the R programming language.

Machine Learning:

The R programming language was created by statisticians to aid other researchers and programmers in data processing more rapidly and easily. 

As we all know, machine learning is mostly about dealing with an amount of information, and stats is a big aspect of data science, thus using R is usually advised. 

As a consequence, individuals dealing with machine learning are increasingly turning to R to make the experience more convenient, quicker and more creative. 

Regarding data visualization, R is indeed an excellent programming language. 

This finest platform for functioning using machine learning models is the R programming language. 

For dealing with machine learning, R does have the greatest capabilities and library packages. 

Programmers could use these packages to construct the finest machine learning pre-model, model & post-model. 

R has far more complex as well as numerous packages than the Python language, making it the preferred language for machine learning. 

Best Alternatives to R Programming:

For a range of platforms, spanning Windows, Linux, Mac, Online/Web-based & Android, there are far more than fifty R equivalents. 

Python, which is free and open-source, is the best option available.  

GNU Octave (free, open-source), MATLAB (paid), Julia (free, open-source), as well as Mathematica are some other notable software like R programming language.


Python is a dynamically structured, processed, object-oriented high-level programming language. 

Its elevated built-in data types, along with dynamic typing and dynamic binding, are ideally suited for Rapid Application Development.

Python facilitates programme flexibility and code reuse by enabling modules and packages. 

Across all popular services, the Python interpreter, as well as the substantial standard library, are free to download in source or binary format.

Python is designed to be a language that is simple to understand. It has a clean layout and frequently employs English keywords instead of punctuation in other languages. 

Statistical Analysis System:

SAS stands for Statistical Analysis System, and it is primarily used for data processing, statistics, and corporate insight. 

SAS (Statistical Analysis System) is a C-based statistical analysis framework. Across more software applications, SAS is often used. 

SAS is a GUI as well as a computer language. Tables, diagrams, and documents are instances of the output. 

SAS is a software programme for reporting, retrieving, and analysing statistical information, as well as executing SQL queries. 

The Statistical Analysis System was created in order to cope with information coming from a wide range of sources. 

The information from diverse sources is combined and analysed statistically to estimate the exact conclusion. 

SAS provides the flexibility for a company to deal with haphazardly obtained data and turn it into tangible results that benefit the company in a variety of methods.

Features of R Programming Language:

R programming is famous for its variety of features. Some of them are as follows : 

  • Attributes In Graphic Design

R contains additional libraries that provide motion graphics capabilities, as well as the ability to create static visuals with high-quality visualizations.

This greatly simplifies data visualization and interpretation. 

R is capable of producing everything from simple charts to collaborative & diverse flowcharts. 

  • A Broad Variety Of Packages

The Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN) has over 10k various formats and features that can be used to handle various data science challenges. 

There is a package accessible for each and every situation, whether it leads to increased visuals, website development, statistical analysis, or machine learning techniques. 

R has a plethora of packages for many fields, such as astrophysics, biology, and so forth. 

R was developed for educational usage, but it is now also used within industries. 

  • Code Execution Without The Need For A Compiler

R is an interpreted language, which doesn’t require the use of a compiler to generate a programme. 

R converts given language into lower-level calls and pre-compiled code immediately. 

  • R Has A Vibrant Community

R is a dynamic language. The expanding majority of individuals who use R on a regular basis is fueling the participation. 

R is an open-source library with a massive fan group that supports and maintains it. 

R also has a thriving community that hosts lectures, boot camps, as well as other professional development. 

  • Various Data 

R is capable of handling both structured and unstructured data. 

Owing to its interface with databases, it also offers a variety of data modelling and data operation tools. 

  • Database Connectivity

Roracle, Open Database Connectivity Protocol, RmySQL, and other tools in R allow it to deal with databases. 

  • Additional Technologies Integration 

R interacts with a range of methods, platforms, software packages, as well as software programs. 

It is used in conjunction with Hadoop for cloud applications. Various programming languages, such as C, C++, Java, Python, and FORTRAN, can then be used to integrate it. 

Merits of R Programming

Some of the merits of utilizing the R programming language is mentioned below : 

  • Statistics 

The language Franca of statistics, R, is well known. 

This is the principal cause for R’s dominance in the development of statistical tools over other programming languages. 

  • Constantly Increasing 

R is a dynamic programming language that is always changing.

It’s cutting edge innovation that automatically generates when the latest elements are added. 

  • Open Source 

R is a free, open Source software program. This implies that neither licence nor charge is required to work with R. 

Anyone can also help “R” evolve by changing its packages, creating new ones, and fixing bugs. 

  • Outstanding Data Handling Support

R is a fantastic tool for manipulating data. Dplyr and readr are two tools that convert unstructured data into standard data. 

  • Packages Throughout The Array 

R contains a large number of packages. The CRAN repository already has approximately 10K packages, and it continues to expand. 

These packages are appealing to a wide range of industries.  

  • Framework

R is a console or cross-platform language of programming, which means that its code runs on any OS.

R allows users to create applications for multi6 platforms while just developing one programme. 

R works on Linux, Windows, and Mac with relative ease. 

  • Operation of machine learning

Users can use R to do different machine learning tasks like regression and classification. 

R has a number of tools and functionalities that can be used to create an artificial neural network for such a purpose.

R is the programming language of choice for the world’s greatest data analysts. 

Demerits of R Programming Language:

The following are some of the demerits of the R programming language : 

  • Essential safety 

R is insecure on a fundamental level. 

Many programming languages, including Python, require it. 

As R cannot be integrated with a web application, it has a lot of limitations. 

  • Language is difficult to understand

R is a difficult language to learn because of its complexity. 

It may be challenging to understand R if you don’t have any previous programming background or expertise. 

  • Origins are faulty

R’s biggest flaw is that it doesn’t offer dynamic or 3D visuals. 

Its origin is the reason for this. Its roots can be traced back to the far earlier computer language ‘S’.

  • Reduced speed 

R is substantially slower than MATLAB and Python. 

Packages in R are noticeably dimmer than those in other computer languages. 

Algorithms in R are split up into several packages. 

Algorithm implementation may be tricky for programmers who are unfamiliar with packages. 

  • Data processing 

Virtual memory is used to store data in R. In comparison to Python, “R” uses more memory. 

It necessitates the storage of all data in a single location, which is the memory. When dealing with Big Data, this is not the best approach. 


There are several merits of using R as a programming language along with some demerits. 

Based on the overall history of R, R is often regarded as the most favourite language by data analysts and statisticians to analyse statistics. 

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